The Two Stages of Withdrawal – Acute and Post-Acute
There are two stages of withdrawal from crack cocaine addiction. The first stage has immediate acute symptoms and these are usually both physical and psychological. During stage two, former users experience post-acute withdrawal symptoms or PAWS.
These refer to a number of psychological symptoms which can last for weeks or months after the user has stopped taking the drug. This is one of many reasons why residential treatment is the most effective way to treat crack cocaine addiction.
Post-acute withdrawal symptoms can include:
- Difficulty sleeping
- Lack of motivation
- Inability to feel pleasure
- Anger or emotional outbursts
Seasons Bali – Internationally Accredited Crack Cocaine Addiction Treatment
Seasons Bali’s experience shows that crack cocaine addiction responds well to effective treatment. This means addressing the physical, psychological, emotional, social and spiritual characteristics of the disease.
We do this through implementing a balanced daily schedule that addresses the wellness of the whole person. This includes everything from group sessions and one on one counselling to yoga, exercise sessions and meditation.
Ideally clients stay for 90 days but we also offer shorter programs for 30 and 60 days. Our staff monitor and evaluate clients throughout their stay so they can acknowledge successes and identify the things that need to be worked on. This really helps our clients grow in confidence, awareness and self-esteem.
The members of our Clinical Team are all in recovery from drug and alcohol addiction which means they have a depth of understanding that goes beyond the formal qualifications they hold. They are role models for our clients and understand the process because they have been through it.
Our clients say:
One of the best things about the program is the staff. It’s such a great team and they’re so inspirational.
Miguel January 2015
Seasons Bali is an idyllic place to recover from the isolation and chaos of crack cocaine addiction. Not only do clients have unlimited access to a dedicated team of addiction professionals but they also live within a magnificent tropical estate.
Located in the midst of sweeping rice fields, the rehab centre is a haven of peace and tranquillity. Every day a wonderful team of Balinese staff take care of your housekeeping needs and our chef serves a selection of delicious healthy meals made from premium local produce. Everything is set up to create a safe space where clients can focus entirely on recovery.
The island of Bali is well known for its amazing beaches and range of outdoor and wellness activities. These resources help to further support the philosophy of recovery we follow. Recovery from crack cocaine addiction is about learning how to enjoy life, work with people and try new things.
What is Crack Cocaine?
Crack cocaine is a powerful form of crystallised cocaine and is created by ‘cooking’ the powdered form of the drug with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate. This process is called ‘freebasing’ and essentially makes the drug stronger. Crack cocaine is usually smoked and gets its name from the snapping and crackling sound it makes when heated. It can also be injected and is sometimes mixed by the user with heroin to form a snowball.
Like cocaine, this substance produces a rapid and intense release of dopamine the brain’s naturally occurring feel-good chemical. Prolonged use interferes with the brains capacity to produce this chemical normally.
Street Names for Crack Cocaine
There is an endless rollcall of nicknames for crack cocaine and these are usually specific to a country or even an individual town or age group of users. It is also worth noting that sometimes methamphetamine gets called crack but it is in fact a different drug.
- Apple jacks
History of Crack Cocaine
In 1981 the USA was the first country to feel the impact of crack cocaine. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency there was a glut of cocaine on the market during this time. Some reports attribute this as being due to the CIA turning a blind eye to imports that were funding the Nicaraguan Contra rebel forces.
This forced dealers to come up with a way to re-energise the market and they did this by adding sodium bicarbonate or ammonia to the powder to make it more volatile. This new rock-like product was basically cocaine as freebase rather than as the hydrochloride salt.
The first large-scale use and mass production was reported in 1984 in Los Angeles. This new form was much stronger and anything up to 80% pure as opposed to traditional cocaine hydrochloride which was often cut with other substances and only 45% pure. People used to taking cocaine would take an equivalent amount of crack cocaine and overdose.
Hospital admissions due to cocaine overdose doubled within a year. This drug hit the UK and Europe by the late 1990’s with a similar force. In recent years methamphetamine has probably taken over in popularity in many areas of the world but crack cocaine is still a significant problem.
What are the Effects of Crack Cocaine Addiction?
Crack cocaine produces an energetic and intense high which only lasts around 5 to 15 minutes. This means that users are often caught in a cycle of finding money to get more drugs and are not interested in other areas of their lives. This drug is so strong it can induce a seizure the very first time it is taken and elevates both the heart rate and the blood pressure.
Every addict’s path into addiction varies. This is a complex disease with many underlying layers which coupled together with trauma, abuse, depression and anxiety make it difficult to diagnose and treat without effective residential addiction treatment.
- Premature aging.
- Dental problems
- Elevated heart rate
- Increased resistance in the body’s blood vessels and hardening of the arteries
- Increased risk of heart attacks
- Increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias
- Damage to the lungs if smoked
- Decreased memory and attention span
- Seizures, strokes and the potential for irreversible brain damage
- Infectious diseases and abscesses if injected
- Changes in the brain chemistry – short term
- Changes in the structure and function of the brain – long term
- Neglecting personal hygiene
- Disturbed sleep
- Unhealthy eating habits/malnutrition
- Lying to yourself/denial
- Apathy /Exhaustion
- Memory loss
- Mood Swings
- Potential increase in risky behaviour
- Financial problems
- Sexual problems
- Lack of interest in activities once enjoyed
- Lack of interest in work/school
- Lack of interest and ability in maintain relationships/friendships
- Damaged relationships with family members
- Lying to others
- Damaged self-esteem and self-worth
- Damaged relationship with self
- Lack of interest in life
- Inability to function without the drug
- Continued use despite negative consequences
The signs and symptoms of crack cocaine addiction get progressively worse over time and there will be no resolution until effective addiction treatment and aftercare are sought.
Withdrawal from Crack Cocaine
Detoxing from crack cocaine can be a challenging process because this drug is both physically and psychologically addictive.
Symptoms of crack cocaine withdrawal can include:
- Unpleasant dreams
- Difficulty concentrating
- Mood changes